Striped bass (Morone)
Striped bass are the largest members of the temperate bass family. They are primarily anadromous, which means they live in a saltwater habitat and migrate to fresh water only to spawn. Landlocked striped bass introduced in freshwater systems are the exception to this rule.
The body color of striped bass is olive-green, blue-gray or bluish-black on the top with silver sides and a white belly. It is easily identified by its seven or eight black stripes that run horizontally along its sides. Fins are dusky silver color, except for the white pelvic fins. Young striped bass may not have the horizontal stripes or they may be interrupted.
Striped bass also have two distinct dorsal fins. The first has seven to 12 stiff spines, which make this fin taller than the second. The second dorsal fin has only one stiff spine with eight to 14 soft rays. Stripers also have a forked tail.
Many freshwater anglers have difficulty distinguishing striped bass from white bass and hybrids. The stripes on the striper are solid, unbroken and most will extend all the way to the tail. On whites and wipers, the stripes are faint and only one will extend to the tail on each side. Striped bass also have a longer, sleeker body and a larger head than white bass and hybrid. In addition, striped bass have two tooth patches on the tongue, as opposed to one.
Young striped bass favor zooplankton and move to freshwater shrimp and midge larvae as they grow. Adult striped bass are known for ravenous appetites and predatory feeding habits. In salt water, the bulk of their diet is small fish such as herring, menhaden, flounder, silversides, and eels. They also consume significant quantities of worms, squid, and crabs. Land-locked freshwater stripers feed almost exclusively on large shad and minnow species, although they will consume mayflies (where available) when hatching near the surface.
Many fishermen have found striped bass to be more active feeders during the nighttime hours. As a result, they prefer to fish for striped bass in low-light conditions or at night. Also, striped bass move in schools and all fish within a school will generally feed at the same time on the same prey.
Striped bass are found in abundant numbers along the East Coast, Gulf Coast, and West Coast of the United States. Along the East Coast, they range from the St. Lawrence River in Canada to the St. Johns River in Florida. Those native to the Mid-Atlantic (Virginia, Maryland and North Carolina) migrate north in the summer and return during the fall. In this region, the Chesapeake and Hudson River systems are the primary spawning grounds. Large numbers can also be found in the river systems of Maine during the summer months.
In the Gulf of Mexico, they can be found along the coasts of Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana. On the Pacific Coast they range from the Columbia River in Oregon to southern California, with the greatest concentration around San Francisco Bay.
There have been numerous attempts to introduce striped bass into inland waters of the United States. Some states, such as Texas, have had much success. Stripers have been stocked in large reservoirs and their associated river systems throughout the Midwest and South. Survival and growth of stocked stripers depend heavily on an abundance of food species, primarily threadfin or gizzard shad, as well as plenty of deep water. Most inland waters lack the spawning conditions stripers require, so they must be maintained through continued stocking programs.
In their native saltwater environments, striped bass are regarded as “inshore” fish. They will not stray far from the coasts, preferring the security of medium depths (less than 100 feet) with the ability to move shallow in pursuit of food. They will generally travel in schools in search of abundant open-water baitfish and are often found near piers, flats, rocks, and surf troughs.
Although they spend most of their lives in ocean water near the coast, they migrate to freshwater rivers to spawn. Stripers will often swim up to 100 miles into tidal rivers to find proper spawning conditions.
When stocked in fresh water, they are likely to inhabit open-water areas for most of the year. True to their nomadic nature, striped bass will follow their preferred prey species instead of holding to cover or structure. They are less likely to be found near the shore unless they happen to be chasing a school of baitfish.
Although they are unable to spawn in most cases, freshwater stripers will still migrate into tributaries in attempts to spawn, most often in early spring. At these times, stripers are more easily found by fishermen in coves, dams, creek arms or the tributary itself.
Striped bass prefer water temperatures between 60 and 68 F but can tolerate a wide range of temperatures as evidenced by their native and introduced range.
� Striped bass have been a commercially important fish in the United States since the 1600s.
� Striped bass have an excellent flavor, are easily filleted and can be prepared in a variety of ways.
� The number of striped bass has fluctuated in recent times along the Atlantic coast because of over-fishing by commercial fisherman and sportsmen alike. Since the mid-1990s, however, populations have experienced a strong comeback in this region.
� In the late 1970s, biologists created a hybrid striped bass, called the “wiper,” by crossing the striped bass with the freshwater white bass. The hybrid species has been successfully introduced in many waters (mainly reservoirs) throughout the central, southern and eastern United States. Although they have yet to experience successful reproduction, hybrid striped bass are better able to tolerate a wider range of biological and environmental conditions.