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Smaller lunar elliptic semi diurnal constituent. This constituent, with N2, modulates the amplitude and frequency of M2 for the effect of variation in the Moon's oribital speed due to its elliptical orbit.
A North Atlantic Ocean current setting southeastward along the east coasts of Baffin Island, Labrador, and Newfoundland.
Vegetation located below the crown level of forest trees which can carry fire from the forest floor to tree crowns. Ladder fuels may be low-growing tree branches, shrubs, or smaller trees.
lagging of tide
The periodic retardation in the time of occurrence of high and low water due to changes in the relative positions of the moon and sun. See daily retardation of tides.
A shallow body of water, as a pond or lake, which usually has a shallow restricted INLET from the sea. See Figure 5.
Obervation of a current with a device flowing with the current.
Smaller lunar evectional constituent. This constituent, with v2, u2, and (S2), modulates the amplitude and frequency of M2 for the effects of variation in solar attraction of the Moon. This attraction results in a slight pear-shaped lunar ellipse and a difference in lunar orbital speed between motion toward and away from the Sun. Although (S2) has the same speed as S2, its amplitude is extremely small.
Slow, smooth flow, with each drop of water traveling a smooth path parallel to its neighboring drops. Laminar flow is characteristic of low velocities, and particles of sediment in the flow zones are moved by rolling or saltation.
The topographic relief of a unit of land. Land classes are separated by slope; this coincides with the timber inventory process. The three land classes used in the Forest Plan are defined by the following slope ranges: 0 to 35 percent; 36 to 55 percent; and greater than 55 percent.
land use planning
The process of organizing the use of lands and their resources to best meet people's needs over time, according to the land's capabilities.
Any place where cut timber is assembled for further transport from the timber sale area.
The boundary lines for National Forest land.
Enclosed by land, or nearly enclosed, as a harbor
A conspicious object, natural or man-made, located near or on land, which aids in fixing the position of an observer.
A large land area composed of interacting ecosystems that are repeated due to factors such as geology, soils, climate, and human impacts. Landscapes are often used for coarse grain analysis.
The stage between egg and larva in the lifecycle of insects that undergo complete metamorphoses, such as caddis and midges
late forest succession
The stage of forest succession in which most of the trees are mature or overmature.
The angular distance between a terrestrial position and the equator measured northward or southward from the equator along a meridian of longitude.
Most often, a piece of monofilament or flourocarbon, of unequal strength than that of the main line used to insure the ability to catch larger game fish on lighter lines
A double-sided, rubber-lined pad through which the leader is pulled in order to rid it of kinks and coils.
leading edge of wing
Front edge of the wing in flight.
A line, wire or cord used in sounding. It is weighted at one end with a plummet (sounding lead). See also sounding line.
A calendar year containing 366 days. According to the present Gregorian calendar, all years with the date-number divisible by 4 are leap years, except century years. The latter are leap years when the date-number is divisible by 400.
A rocky formation continuous with fringing the shore.
The direction toward which the prevailing wind is blowing; the direction toward which waves are travelling.
Limb used for supporting the bird.
lessor secondary coverts
Feathers overlying bases of median secondary coverts. Synonym(s): marginal coverts, shoulder.
(1) An embankment to prevent inundation. (2) (SMP) A large dike or embankment, often having an access road along the top, which is designed as part of a system to protect land from floods.
level of no motion
A level (or layer) at which it is assumed that an isobaric surface coincides with a geopotential surface. A level (or layer) at which there is no horizontal pressure gradient force.
See geopotential surface as preferred term.
level wind system
A mechanism found on a reel that winds the line back and forth from side to side to keep it stacked up equally on the spool
Areas or "belts" of land that have distinct plant and animal characteristics determined by elevation, latitude, and climate. When ascending a high mountain, you will pass through these life zones. Examples of life zones include the Upper Sonoran, where Cedar City is located and gramma grasses, sagebrush, and scattered pinyon juniper predominate, and the Transition zone, where Ponderosa pine is predominant.
A wind with velocity from 4 to 6 nautical miles per hour.
limit of backwash
The seaward limit of the backwash at any given tide stage.
limit of uprush
The landward limit of uprush at any given tide stage.
The amount or length of monofilament, dacron, or spectra that can fit on to the spool of a reel.
The objects in which the fishing line runs through while traveling on a fishing rod
These are usually sinking lures, that are made from plastic, and contain many rattles inside that are extremely loud, and creates quite a disturbance underwater. Such lures as the Rat-L-Trap, Cordell Spot, and Rapala Rattlin Rap, fall into this category
litter (forest litter)
The freshly fallen or only slightly decomposed plant material on the forest floor. This layer includes foliage, bark fragments, twigs, flowers, and fruit.
(1) Of, or pertaining to, a shore, especially a seashore. (2) (SMP) Living on, or occurring on, the shore.
A current running parallel to the BEACH and generally caused by waves striking the shore at an angle.
Deposits of littoral drift.
(1) The sedimentary material moved in the littoral zone under the influence of waves and currents. (2) (SMP) The mud, sand, or gravel material moved parallel to the shoreline in the nearshore zone by waves and currents.
The movement of littoral drift in the littoral zone by waves and currents. Includes movement parallel (long shore drift) and sometimes also perpendicular (CROSS-SHORE transport) to the shore.
littoral transport rate
The rate of transport of sedimentary material parallel to or perpendicular to the shore in the LITTORAL ZONE. Usually expressed in cubic meters (yards) per year. Commonly used as synonymous with longshore transport rate.
In coastal engineering, the area from the shoreline to just beyond the breaker zone. In biological oceanography, it is that part of the benthic division extending from the high water line out to a depth of about 200 meters. The littoral system is divided into a eulittoral and sublittoral zone, separated at a depth of about 50 meters. Also, frequently used interchangeably with intertidal zone.
Small living fish or worms used to entice prey
A special compartment on a boat that keeps fish alive so they can be released at a later date
domestic animals raised for food and fiber such as hogs, sheep, cattle, and horses, but not including birds.
The quantity of sediment transported by a current. It includes the suspended load of small particles in the water, and the bedload of large particles that move along the bottom.
See kappa (k) and epoch (1).
Time in which noon is defined by the transit of the Sun over the local meridian as distinguished from standard time which is based upon the transit of the Sun over a standard meridian. Local time may be either mean or apparent, according to whether reference is to the mean or actual Sun. Local time was in general use in the United States until 1883, when standard time was adopted. The use of local time in other parts of the world has also been practically abandoned in favor of the more convenient standard time.
locally generated waves
Waves generated within the immediate vicinity, within approximately 50 km, of the point of interest.
A slang name for a barracuda
A graduated line used to measure the speed of a vessel through the water or to measure the velocity of the current from a vessel at anchor. See current line.
logging residue (slash)
The residue left on the ground after timber cutting. It includes unutilized logs, uprooted stumps, broken branches, bark, and leaves. Certain amounts of slash provide important ecosystem roles, such as soil protection, nutrient cycling, and wildlife habitat.
long period constituent
A tidal or tidal current constituent with a period that is independent of the rotation of the Earth but which depends upon the orbital movement of the Moon or the Earth. The principal lunar long period constituents have periods approximating the month and half month, and the principal solar long period constituents have periods approximating the year and half year.
long period waves (long waves)
Forced or free waves whose lengths are much longer than the water depth. See tidal wave and tsunami.
Waves with periods above about 30 seconds; can be generated by wave groups breaking in the surf zone. See also infragravity waves.
A wave, the crest length of which is long compared to the wave length.
the age at death of an animal.
Angular distance in a great circle of reference reckoned from an accepted origin to the projection of any point on that circle. Longitude on the Earth's surface is measured on the Equator east and west of the meridian of Greenwich and may be expressed either in degrees or in hours, the hour being taken as the equivalent of 15
Parallel and close to the coastline
A sand ridge or ridges, extending along the shore outside the trough, that may be exposed at low tide or may occur below the water level in the offshore.
A current located in the surf zone, moving generally parallel to the shoreline, generated by waves breaking at an angle with the shoreline, also called the alongshore current.
Movement of sediments approximately parallel to the coastline
longshore transport rate
Rate of transport of sedimentary material parallel to the shore. Usually expressed in cubic meter (yards) per year. Commonly used as synonymous with littoral transport rate.
An elongate depression or series of depressions extending along the lower beach or in the offshore zone inside the breakers.
The "U" shape that a fly line makes during the cast
That part of a STANDING WAVE where the vertical motion is greatest and the horizontal velocities are least.
A current setting clockwise in the Gulf of Mexico. It enters through the Yucatan Channel from the Caribbean Sea and leaves through the Straits of Florida.
A free swimming lure. One that travels from side to side and not just straight.
Area between the eye and the bill.
See low water
low tide terrace
A flat zone of the beach near the low water level
low water (LW)
The minimum height reached by each falling tide. Nontechnically, also called low tide.
low water datum (LWD)
(1) The geopotential elevation (geopotential difference) for each of the Great Lakes and Lake St. Clair and the corresponding sloping surfaces of the St. Marys, St. Clair, Detroit, Niagara, and St. Lawrence Rivers to which are referred the depths shown on the navigational charts and the authorized depths for navigation improvement projects. Elevations of these planes are referred to IGLD (1955) and are Lake Superior 600.0 feet, Lakes Michigan and Huron 576.8 feet, Lake St. Clair 571.7 feet, Lake Erie 568.6 feet, and Lake Ontario 242.8 feet. (2) An approximation of mean low water that has been adopted as a standard reference for a limited area and is retained for an indefinite period regardless of the fact that it may differ slightly from a better determination of mean low water from a subsequent series of observations. Used primarily for river and harbor engineering purposes. Boston low water datum is an example.
low water equinoctial springs
Low water springs near the times of the equinoxes. Expressed in terms of the harmonic constants, it is an elevation depressed below mean sea level by an amount equal to the sum of the amplitudes of the constituents M2, S2, and K2.
low water inequuality
See luntidal interval
low water line
The line where the established low water datum intersects the shore. The plane of reference that constitutes the low water datum differs in different regions.
low water line
The intersection of the land with the water surface at an elevation of low water.
lower high water (LHW)
The lower of the two high waters of any tidal day.
lower low water (LLW)
The lower of the two low waters of any tidal day. The single low water occurring daily during periods when the tide is DIURNAL is considered to be LLW.
lower low water datum
An approximation to the plane of mean lower low water that has been adopted as a standard reference plane for a limited area and is retained for an indefinite period regardless of the fact that it may differ slightly from a better determination of mean lower low water from a subsequent series of observations.
Lower part of the bill.
lower mandibular tomis
Cutting edges of lower mandible.
An ambiguous expression which has been applied to various cycles associated with the Moon's motion. See Callippic cycle, Metonic cycle, node cycle, and synodical month
The time of rotation of the Earth with respect to the moon, or the interval between two successive upper transits of the moon over the meridian of a place. The mean lunar day is approximately 24.84 solar hours in length, or 1.035 times as great as the mean solar day. Also called tidal day.
The time of the rotation of the Earth with respect to the Moon, or the interval between two successive upper transits of the Moon over the meridian of a place. The mean lunar day is approximately 24.84 solar hours in length, or 1.035 times as great as the mean solar day.
The difference in time between the transit of the Moon over the meridian of Greenwich and a local meridian. The average value of this interval, expressed in hours, is 0.069 L, where L is the local longitude in degrees, positive for west longitude and negative for east. The lunar interval equals the difference between the local and Greenwich interval of a tide or current phase.
See as synodical month
The points where the plane of the Moon's orbit intersects the ecliptic. The point where the Moon crosses in going from south to north is called the ascending node and the point where the crossing is from north to south is called the descending node. References are usually made to the ascending node which, for brevity, may be called the node.
That part of the tide on the Earth due solely to the Moon as distinguished from that part due to the Sun.
Time based upon the rotation of the Earth relative to the Moon. See lunar day.
Same as synodical month
The interval between the Moon's transit (upper or lower) over the local or Greenwich meridian and a specified phase of the tidal current following the transit. Examples are strength of flood interval and strength of ebb interval, which may be abbreviated to flood interval and ebb interval, respectively. The interval is described as local or Greenwich according to whether the reference is to the Moon's transit over the local or Greenwich meridian. When not otherwise specified, the reference is assumed to be local. For a and b markings, see lunitidal interval.
Harmonic tidal constituents K1, and K2, which are derived partly from the development of the lunar tide and partly from the solar tide, the constituent speeds being the same in both cases. Also, the lunisolar synodic fort nightly constituent MSf.
The interval between the Moon's transit (upper or lower) over the local or Greenwich meridian and the following high or low water. The average of all high water intervals for all phases of the Moon is known as mean high water lunitidal interval and is abbreviated to high water interval (HWI). Similarly, mean low water lunitidal interval is abbreviated to low water interval (LWI). The interval is described as local or Greenwich according to whether the reference is to the transit over the local or Greenwich meridian. When not otherwise specified, the reference is assumed to be local. When there is considerable diurnal inequality in the tide, separate intervals may be obtained for the higher high waters, lower high waters, higher low waters, and lower low waters. These are designated respectively as higher high water interval (HHWI), lower high water interval (LHWI), higher low water interval (HLWI), and lower low water interval (LLWI). In such cases, and also when the tide is diurnal, it is necessary to distinguish between the upper and lower transit of the Moon with reference to its declination. Intervals referred to the Moon's upper transit at the time of its north declination or the lower transit at the time of south declination are marked a. Intervals referred to the Moon's lower transit at the time of its north declination or to the upper transit at the time of south declination are marked b.