Buffleheads can take flight from water without having to run along the surface as other diving ducks do.
The population of male Bufflehead outnumbers the females and many of the males will not be paired after their migration to the breeding areas.
Bufflehead ducks migrate during the night using the darkness as cover. They will migrate during the day when the weather is severe.
Gray/Timber Wolf (Canis)
Powerful teeth, bushy tails and round pupils distinguish wolves from other species of the Canidae family. The gray wolf usually has red-yellow or yellow-gray fur with black patches on its sides and back, and white on its abdomen and chest. In some instances, some gray wolves are black or brown, and those in the far north can even be pure white. The gray wolf has longer fur then the red wolf. They average 5 to 5.5 feet in length, including the tail.
Average Weight Range
Mature gray wolves range from 70 to over 175 pounds.
Wolves become sexually mature when they are about three years old. Only the alpha pair breed once a year. There is an intricate courtship during which the male pursues the female. Courtship sometimes begins months before the female is in heat. A lifetime bond is formed at this time. Male wolves have a fertile period, which approximately matches the females' estrus periods (10 days on the average), and are not fertile outside that time. They mate between January and April so that the pups are developed before the beginning of the next winter and may even be strong enough to participate in hunting. The gestation period for wolves is nine weeks. The litter size is one to 11 pups. Pups weigh about a pound at birth and are unable to see or hear. They derive warmth by staying close to their mother. Pups spend the first few weeks of their lives in the den, and a substantial part of this time is spent eating and sleeping. Their eyes open after the first two weeks and they begin to hear, walk and eat solid food when they are three weeks old. They are introduced to the other members of the pack when they are a month old, and they also leave the den at this point. Once the pups are nine weeks old, the pack leaves the den area for a site where the pups can safely play when older members of the pack are busy hunting. Other members of the pack look after them (feeding, protecting and playing) until they are at least a year old and capable of hunting.
Wolves subsist mainly on meat but also use other food sources. They kill large animals like moose, muskoxen or deer when hunting in a pack. Wolves hunting alone often target smaller animals like fish, muskrats, rabbits and beavers. In the absence of live prey, wolves also feed on carrion.
The gray wolf has five subspecies and is found in the northern Rocky Mountains (Alaska, Canada and into Idaho and Montana), the western Great Lakes region (Minnesota, Michigan and Wisconsin) and the northeastern United States. Wolf hunting is allowed in Alaska and Canada.
Wolves are commonly found on prairies, forestlands and mountainous terrain.
Common Hunting Methods
Wolf hunting can be done by using the spot and stalk technique, baiting and trapping. Rifles are normally used during wolf hunts. Tree stands can also be used in pre-baited areas. Wolves can be baited with wild game like moose or meat scraps. The middle of December is the best time for wolf hunting as snow makes it easier to follow their movement while monitoring bait sites.
Wolves in the wild are shy around humans. Wolves are often hunted for trophies. The fur of wolves is also tanned and sold.
Wolves are social animals that live in family-like units called packs.
Of all their calls, howling is the only one that works well over long distances.
The way the tail is held is a very important part of a wolf's body language; submission, dominance, aggression or fear can be detected from the position of a wolf's tail.
Wolves eat grass as a purgative and other vegetable matter like nuts or berries.
Wolf pups introduced to humans instead of wolves when one month old will bond to people at this time.
Wolves need an average of three to 10 pounds of meat each day.
Wolves can travel distances from 10 to 30 miles in search of food by trotting along at five miles per hour. They can run short distances at 25 to 35 miles per hour when chasing prey.